4 Steps to Prioritizing Your Career Goals for 2017

The new year is a great reboot button. With the clarity of a successful year behind you and a clean slate ahead of you, your perspective has never been better. Is something missing? Are there career milestones or new workplace adventures you’d like to reach but at this rate seem impossible? Take this opportunity to start fresh and prioritize your career goals with these Warren Buffet encouraged steps.

1.      Figure out what you want

This exercise may require you jot some things down, preferably in list form. Write down as many things as you can think of that you want to be a part of your life that aren’t already. What career opportunities would you like to have in the next few years, or perhaps even in a lifetime? Brainstorm and take notes, even if it seems impossible.

2.     Narrow it down

Hopefully you’ve written yourself quite a nice list of 2017 (and beyond) career ambitions but a list of 20 or so things can get overwhelming. So let’s begin by picking the top 5. It may be difficult to narrow down your list of hopes and dreams but try to pick out the 5 that are most important to you.

3.     Make a plan

Having a list is great, but if you don’t have actionable items to get you moving, you won’t ever tackle your goals. Figure out what steps you’ll need to take to get each of your 5 things; this will include people and resources you may need. Think about who you could talk to, who could help in certain areas and how you’ll go about engaging them. Are there courses you have to take or certifications you have to earn before completing your goals? Do you research now and make a plan on how to get started.

4.     Commit

Your top 5 priorities are it. Don’t think about the other things on your list that didn’t make the cut – they no longer matter because they’re merely a distraction now. Focusing strongly on 5 things will end with more success than focusing bleary-eyed on 20, so stay committed to your 5 and forget all else.

That seems simple enough, wouldn’t you say? Four steps to reaching your career goals for this year, the next 5 years or a lifetime? The strategy will work because it gives you lines to color inside of; things to focus on and things to ignore. It’s a structure that makes things black and white, as clear as possible and easy to follow. So give it a shot as you rethink your 2017 career ambitions. There’s no better time.


Do you need help increasing job visibility or prioritizing your career goals? My executive coaching services can help you hone your communication skills and clearly define your goals and objectives.

Salary Negotiation Tips & Strategies

Don't Take on Free Work

Don’t Take on Free Work

Salary negotiations can be a major pain point for most employees and even managers. There’s a way to do it and garner results and a way to do it ineffectively. The different rests in these few dos and don’ts.


Be Ridiculous

While you should ask for a fair salary, be sure to avoid naming a figure that’s absurdly high in the hopes it will just be negotiated down. Few things can halt a salary negotiation quite like an unreasonable request, don’t start off on the wrong foot.

Take on Free Work

It’s important to agree to take on more responsibility to warrant your salary increase, but not without proper compensation. Any new responsibility should be reflected in your pay.

Get Personal

As frustrating as it may be, you’re not alone in financial hardships. So leave the tales of how you’re struggling to pay the mortgage and put 3 kids through college at home; it won’t play into your potential salary increase.

Assume the Offer is Final

Salary and benefits are usually negotiable, even in this economy. Most organizations leave themselves some room for movement when placing and offer on the table. Don’t sell yourself short.

Make Threats

Threatening to quit your job won’t have the desired effect in a salary negotiation. It’s unprofessional and will work against you in your quest.


Agree to Work Harder

Let it be known that you can fill important company needs and will eagerly jump at new project opportunities. Be sure your new responsibility is reflected in your pay but if you show a willingness to grow and contribute to the team, your negotiations should sway more your way.

Your Research

This is especially helpful if you’re applying for a new position that isn’t identical to the one you already hold. Prior to your interview, gather as much information as you can about what the going rate is for the position at hand and how that stacks up next to your education, experience and skills. Ask relevant questions about the duties you will be asked to perform and have an understanding of the high, median and low salaries for the job.

Talk Bottom Line

Discuss how you’ve contributed to your current organization’s bottom line. Offer statistics and concrete ways you helped the company profit and are, therefore, worth a salary increase.

Add Benefits

There are other ways to be compensated beyond straight pay.  Educational reimbursements, vacation time and travel allowances can be added to your negotiation. Being flexible in your requests could work to your benefit.

Remain Patient

Staying patient and steadfast in your quest will work in your favor, even if time appears not to be. These are two great qualities in an employee; understanding it might not be the right time for the salary you want and remaining patient and steadfast will get you to the goal eventually.

Negotiating your salary for a new or current job can be an intimidating feat. But you can be wildly successful if you apply the right strategy with the right attitude. Stay patient and professional, hopeful and factual and better compensation will be yours in no time.


Do you want to motivate and lead your staff more effectively? My executive coaching services can help you hone your leadership skills and clearly define your goals and objectives.


Top 5 Limiting Beliefs That Will Keep You Out of the Corner Office

I’m underqualified.

Getting ahead in business doesn’t come naturally to everyone. And you might be confused about how to accomplish your career goals quickly and professionally.

Corporate ladder climbing is often competitive and it can be hard to keep the courage to stick with it when the process might start to shine a light on your shortcomings.

The good news is letting career-limiting beliefs stand between you and your dream role is more easily avoidable than you think; but you have to start with identifying them. See if any of these resonate with your inner empowerment struggle and learn how to put your doubts in their rightful place; behind you.

  1. The job market is terrible, I should just be happy where I am.

While there is some validity to this thought process (gratitude can get you far), there’s no reason others can succeed in the same market while you hold on to negative odds. People are still getting jobs, and the market is on the upswing. Plus you never know if your dream position just opened up because the person who held it before moved on at the perfect time.

  1. I’m underqualified.

This is best left for the hiring manager to decide, so throw your hat into the ring regardless of whether or not you think you’re good enough. Our self-esteem can be easily damaged during an intensive job search but it’s important you disconnect that from your professional conquests. What’s the worst that can happen if you apply for a job you’re not qualified for? Then consider what’s the best that could happen.

  1. I’m overqualified.

No one is overqualified. You might not have the proper qualifications for one job or another but blanket statements like will have your job search going from “selective” to “impossible.”

  1. I’m too old.

If you’re fearful that your skills will be out of date, take this opportunity to update your education. If there’s a particular skill required for the job you desire most, take a course or network with the folks who understand it best. Otherwise your age shouldn’t limit you. You’ll always have something to offer that the younger generations can’t; figure out what it is and market it.

  1. I need experience to get the job, but I need to get the job to get experience.

This can be a frustrating predicament to find yourself, especially if you’re new to the job market. But don’t get stuck thinking you need to be on a particular journey in order to get the proper experience. Volunteering and interning, while undesirable, can help solve this problem in just a few short months. If this is the only thing holding you back, think outside the box and get creative.

Whether you’re fresh out of college looking for the perfect entry-level job or a seasoned veteran looking for that corner office, there are confidence pitfalls that make it easy to turn the probable into the impossible. Don’t let these beliefs get the best of you.


Do you want to motivate and lead your staff more effectively? My executive coaching services can help you hone your leadership skills and clearly define your goals and objectives.

Exit Strategy: How to Seamlessly Handoff Your Role

Get Your Projects Up to Date

There are several reasons you might be ready to pack it in at work; finding a new job, taking a temporary leave or being laid off. Each situation warrants its own level of sensitivity but whether you’re leaving by choice, circumstance or temporarily, aiding in the transitioning process can be the mutually beneficial happy ending everyone deserves.

You might be checked out, you might be tired, you might even be angry, but leaving your job on good terms is a must in this work climate.   Assisting in the job handoff is a great way to show your professionalism.

When You’re the One Leaving

Get your projects up to date – if you clean up the backlog as much as possible before the transition takes effect, your incoming replacement will be able to learn and adjust with more ease. It won’t be possible to finish everything, but don’t start abandoning your work just yet.

Gather tips and info for your replacement – A quick guide about the ins and outs of the systems, processes and insider tips that will make their transition go smoothly will offer a big impact to the team, your manager and the company. It’s an insight you can offer easily that will go a long way.

Connect with business associates - it’s a great idea to introduce your contacts to your new replacement so they’re comfortable with the transition as well. Clients and colleagues alike would appreciate hearing from you to know you’ll be stepping down and someone else will be taking your place.

Prepare for your new role - don’t forget to prepare for your upcoming new job. It’s important to help handoff your current role but your future success depends on you taking the time to get ready for the next step of your career. Be sure to find the right balance.


When Your Employee Is the One Leaving

Don’t assign new work - managers should be careful to not assign any new work that isn’t completely necessary. If your exiting employee is willing to stick around and help in the transition, it’s important you don’t take advantage of that. Delegate the projects properly without bogging down the person on their way out.

Work together on a To-Do list – work with your employee on the things you’d like them to help you with before their exit, such as any pressing projects that need completion or final loose ends to tie down. Be sure to check in with them so they can tell you if it’s feasible in the given time frame.

Check in often – it’s important to maintain communication with them at this point. How are they managing their transition work? Do they need help? Be a supportive presence to encourage the handoff goes smoothly for both them and their replacement.


Whether you’re leaving or a member of your team is on their way out, a role transition is important for everyone involved. Be patient, supportive and work together to make it a seamless change.


Do you want to motivate and lead your staff more effectively? My executive coaching services can help you hone your leadership skills and clearly define your goals and objectives.

More Questions To Ask Yourself Before You Quit Your Job

How will I explain this on future interviews?

There are several reasons you might think about quitting your job. If you’re suffering from career-induced stress, a lack of financial stability or are feeling undervalued, you could be looking eagerly toward the exit.

But there are several things to factor in to such a big decision. In our last batch of quitting question suggestions, we recommended that before you start contemplating your exciting and bold exit strategy, ask yourself these questions:

  • Can I effectively address these issues with my boss first?
  • Can I see myself as the boss?
  • Do I have a financial backup plan?
  • What are my other options?

If you’ve worked through those answers and still aren’t sure, here are some more things to examine.

How will I explain this on future interviews?

Everyone knows that a hot topic on any job interview is why you left your last place of employment. If you feel uncomfortable having this conversation with a potential future employer, it might be because your reasons to leave aren’t quite enough. In addition to your reasons, your interviewer will consider how long you were at this company, and even the one before it. If they notice a tendency of job-hopping, they won’t be impressed. Take a look at your resume and see if you sense a pattern. Notice it before someone else does.

Am I considering all of the benefits?

It’s easier to be disgruntled about work than it is to appreciate it. Not every company offers the same incentives, benefits and even pay as the company you’re with now. This includes amenities, flexible schedules and commute ease and time. You may feel unmotivated but it’s possible once you compare what you have to what else is out there, you may suddenly feel very grateful. If not, once you see where you are compared to where you could be, you can determine how much it’s all worth to you. Do you dislike your job so much you’re willing to give up a shorter commute and steeper benefits?

What are your strengths and weaknesses?

This may seem like a silly question to ask at a time like this, but it can serve you well in two ways; 1. You’re already prepared with an answer for any potential upcoming interviews and 2. Truly understanding these things about yourself will give you the clarity you need to make a choice.  Consider that the reason you’re not getting the most out of your job is because you’re not putting the right kind of focus and effort into it. If that sounds about right, now is the time to try to change that. Express a desire to your boss about different projects that you can work on where your strengths can best benefit the team and company. If that’s not possible, your new-found self awareness will lead you where you want and need to go next.

Quitting a job is complicated yet often necessary. There are many reasons to desire the change, but for every reason, there’s a serious factor that needs to be weighed before making the decision.


Do you need help assessing your career anxiety or improving your relationship with your boss? My executive coaching services can help you hone your communication skills and clearly define your goals and objectives.

Outsider to Insider at work: Turnaround Tips

Executive Coaching

Building Rapport in your New Job: Turnaround Tips

You’ve recently started a new job with a larger role.  The position sounded ideal because it promised growth and the opportunity to showcase your skills.   You were thinking of this as the next logical step in your career.

But it’s not turning out the way you had anticipated.

Your new co-workers are a tightly knit group and clicky.  Moving your agenda forward requires their cooperation and support.  Frustratingly, your initiatives are being stalled because you can’t get traction from the influencers on your team. The ideas you suggest are met with “that’s not the way it’s done here.”

Worse, you can’t seem to insert yourself into conversations or take part in inside jokes.

You wonder what the heck is happening?

And you are feeling like an outsider.

Take heart my friend; you are experiencing the transitional pains of fitting into a new culture.

Here are steps you can take immediately to pave the way for receiving more cooperation on your projects while building better relationships with your coworkers:

  • Don’t put the cart before the horse.  In the example above, the new employee hadn’t built the bridges or relationships with co-workers that would make them inclined to help.  First and foremost, you need to launch a sincere effort to build good will.

  • Starting Over — So how do you build rapport after coming on like gangbusters?  Begin with saying you’d like to start fresh by pushing the reset button.   Invite them to coffee/lunch and approach the conversation as a friend…what would you ask a new acquaintance to get to know them?  Questions about their family, interests, motivators, etc.?  Do not attempt to bring up business or your goals.  These first chats are about them.

  • It’s not all about you or your objectives.  Once you sense you’ve created the groundwork for a discussion with the influencers, ask them their opinion of your projects and how you might be of help to them?  Ensure that they are aware that this is a two-way street.   And you need to mean it.  Ultimately it may require more effort on your part to deliver on your promise to help them.  However, in the long run, it’s the only way to be successful when you need other people’s support.

  • Make it a habit.   Being hard driving and goal oriented is all well and good but you need to earn the loyalty and commitment of your team. That means becoming a leader that people trust and want to follow.  Working well with others requires understanding what motivates each person and helping them become successful.   Incorporate these leadership skills into your everyday approach and you’ll go from an outsider to an insider at work.  More importantly, you’ll have developed expertise that you can put to good use in every future position.


Need help in defining exactly what you can do in your new job to become successful?  That’s why people hire an executive coach.  Working with a coach you will receive support, accountability and a blueprint for action steps to become successful and comfortable in your new role.


Never Accept the First Salary Offer

Why Accepting the First Salary Offer is Never a Good Idea


One of the key issues I tackle in my executive coaching work is helping clients negotiate the salary, bonus and perks they want in a new job.

What always surprises me is the anxiety that clients display in trying to come up with the salary number to request.

The anxiety is often coupled with feelings of gratitude (wow, they offered me a job!) or, I don’t want to appear greedy (they won’t think I’m a team player if I ask for a lot plus they already said they have a limited budget).

Have these thoughts entered your mind in dealing with the salary issue?

I bet they have.

I’d like to offer my point of view.

Sheryl Sandburg, the COO of Facebook, and the author of the new and controversial book “Lean In,” suggests that women need to step up and learn to negotiate salaries that reflect what they are truly worth.

However, my experience in coaching executives proves that
asking for what you are worth is not only a women’s issue; men
also lack adequate negotiating skills.

Here are two recent examples:

A client came to me because he was about to accept a new job with a government agency. He was going back to the public sector after working in a large private corporation for several years.

The potential new boss said they were limited by the salaries of their current employees. During our session the client told me that offers were tied to salary grades (hard numbers) and sign-on bonuses were unheard of in government.

However, the client had progressed a long way in experience and value since his prior government service and needed to factor that
into his new ask.

I pressed him to request a salary matching his current compensation. My client negotiated over several weeks with his potential new boss.

The upshot was that they not only matched his current salary, which was a big ask, but they also gave him a sign-on bonus!

What does this prove?

Always ask for what you deserve. If the new employer really wants you they will “find” the money, government or not.

A second example was a client who was consulting for a growing entertainment company. They offered her a full-time position and she
was struggling to figure out what salary to request. She wanted to match the salary of her last full-time job but was reluctant to request
that because the employer said they had a “limited budget.”

After our discussion, she requested 10K more than her last salary. The company initially countered with a lower offer. She persisted and inquired if they could do better. They not only came back with the 10K she asked but agreed to an early performance review.

My client knew she had superior skills for the job and she had proven her value. Her negotiating position was strong.

Not every potential candidate has a strong bargaining position going into a salary negotiation. However, be aware that most employer’s use the phrase, “we have a limited budget” as a negotiating ploy to apply pressure to the candidate to accept a lower offer.

The lesson here is:

Don’t buy into the “limited budget” tactic.

At a minimum, always say you need time to think over the first offer. This will give you breathing room to develop your negotiating

Consider this: negotiating is a skill all employers value and they will be watching and impressed by how you handle this first negotiating test.

Learning to recognize and successfully navigate the methods employers use in salary negotiations will strengthen your resolve
never to accept the first offer.


Do you need guidance in negotiating your new salary? Working with an executive coach can make all the difference. Also offering Corporate Coaching for Organizations

How To Choose a Boss

This article is compliments of Jonathan Lederer, VP of Sales of Popkin Software. I think Jon’s article is terrific. Did you know that there are key factors you need to know when interviewing with your prospective boss? Well, read on. Thank you Jon!

How To Choose A Boss

Choosing a Boss is very similar to choosing a significant other. Actually, if you truly think about it, you will probably spend more time making decisions to please your Boss than any other person in your life. If not, you are most likely looking for another job or you will be shortly. However, in my opinion, if
you follow these basic rules, your chances of making a good decision dramatically improve. These rules are as follows:

  1. On the interview, come in with a series of questions. It is essential to recognize that you are interviewing your prospective Boss as much as he/she is interviewing you.
  2. Never choose a job without meeting your Boss and their Boss, too. It is not only important to get along with your Boss, but to understand the dynamic between the person you report to and their Boss (ask to speak to them separately - this way, your new Boss is not on their best behavior). This also enables you to see if there are discrepancies in what the position entails.
  3. Go through typical day-to-day scenarios. How do you react in XYZ situation? If they respond similarly to you, certainly let the individual know that you would react in the same way (this illustrates that you are both on the same page). If he/she does not react in a way you like, reevaluate your position. You can
    love a job, but if you can’t interact with your Boss positively, the job is not worth it.
  4. Watch the way in which your Boss responds to your questions. Body language is as important as verbal communication. Remember, your prospective Boss may love your resume; however, in six months, if you don’t get along, his/her memory gets extremely short.
  5. Can you manage their expectations? The job may be fantastic, but your new Boss may not truly understand what it will take to be successful. Your approach, in solving issues, may be very different from the way your new Boss may solve the same dilemma. Politically, you can still get into trouble even if you resolve the issue.
  6. Do your personalities clash? Be honest with yourself and say, “Can I spend the rest of my life with this person?” If your answer is no, then you better run.

Like all relationships, interacting with a Boss takes hard work, understanding, dedication and communication to make it work successfully. Only you can decide who is right for you; however, with all good decisions, knowing what you are looking for always makes the decision that much easier.

Happy hunting!

Suggested Reading

The Art of Possibility
by Rosamund Stone Zander and Benjamin Zander

I’m recommending this book like crazy to my clients. Rosamund and Ben spoke at last year’s International Coach Federation conference in Atlanta, and they were phenomenal. Probably the best speakers I’ve ever heard. I ran to the bookstore to buy their book. I wasn’t disappointed. “In the face of difficulty, we can despair, get angry or choose possibility.” This book is a roadmap to helping bring the sense of possibility into your life.

201 Best Questions to Ask on Your Interview
by John Kador

This book is a great resource. The questions you ask on your job interview are as important as the answers you give. They reflect your attitude and can set you apart from the multitude of applicants competing for the same job. Here’s a terrific example: “What’s the most important thing I can do to help within the first 90 days of my employment?” That gets the interviewer thinking every time.

Surviving Job Loss

If you are one of the many who are unemployed or anticipate being out of work, read on.

When you lose a job, whether by choice or not, you may feel loss, fear and its helpful cousin, anxiety.

It may have been a miserable situation that you couldn’t wait to leave. You may start beating yourself up (mentally and emotionally) for having stayed too long, for lack of foresight and for the dread of having to begin a job search.

These emotions are draining, debilitating and make you want to stay in bed.

Here are some tips that I’ve learned through the years to deal with job loss:

Initially, give yourself the time to feel and deal with the loss.

That may mean you need to postpone your job search. That’s okay. You’ll come back stronger after taking the time you need. However, if you can’t get out of bed after a week or two, seek professional support.

From day one, focus on taking care of yourself.

This is not the time to eat junk food or give up your exercise program. Your immune system takes a hit when you are stressed, so give it the fuel and care it needs to help you stay healthy.

Visit with close family and friends.

You need hugs, comfort and support. The best place to get it is with people who love you. Don’t isolate yourself for days.

Take time to be reflective.

Think about what your strengths are and what part(s) of your last job you would want to do again. Take notes.

If your last boss was a monster, think about what you would look for in your next boss.

What type of personality and temperament would you seek? What would you avoid? How will you know if it’s a good fit?

Rehearse how you will handle questions about your previous employer, especially if you were forced out.

Don’t get bogged down in too many details. Most employers know that companies reorganize, resulting in staff changes. You don’t need to lie. You can position your former situation in a positive light, without sounding like a victim.

Limit the amount of time you spend speaking with former coworkers.

You don’t need to rehash what happened and who said what about whom. This is a waste of time.

If you really feel blue, think about past successes in your career or life.

Focus on times when you felt joyful. Look at photos of trips or events when you were happy.

Your “job” before getting a job is to keep yourself well and heal prior to launching your job search campaign. You’ll be more successful, and have more confidence and poise, if you give yourself time to restore your energy and resolve.

Suggested Reading

I Don’t Know What I Want, But I Know It’s Not This

By Julie Jansen

Julie addresses today’s work-dissatisfaction epidemic and uses career assessment quizzes and personality exercises to help readers assess their present job, discover the type of work for which they’re best suited and make change happen. Filled with real-life examples and a useful resource section, Julie’s guide is an invaluable instrument for implementing positive career change.

The Mediterranean Diet Cookbook

By Nancy Harmon Jenkins

This cookbook forever banishes the idea that healthy food has to be boring or tasteless. If you’ve ever visited Italy (or want to), this book’s recipes evoke the warm, golden goodness of olive oil, the savory flavor of garlic and spices on fish, pasta, and crusty breads. Is your mouth watering yet?

Ace Your Interview

Getting an appointment for an interview these days is an accomplishment. It indicates that you have a good resume, and/or that networking has paid off. Bravo. Now for the all-important in-person phase of the process.

There are hundreds of books out there with advice on this topic. I’ve read a lot of them. One I read recently, “201 Questions to Ask on Your Interview” by John Kador, hit a home run with me. More about that in the suggested reading section.

What particularly grabbed me was his discussion of 5 key attributes that need to be in evidence when you interview.

I’m continually telling my clients to ensure that the examples they use to highlight their accomplishments are specific. Explicit numbers, results and outcomes. Generic words are meaningless and have no heft. For example, instead of using the word “significant,” use a number or percentage.

Beyond specific examples of past accomplishments are the behaviors that underlie these results. Now, to these 5 key attributes that should be at the foundation of your presentation.

You need to show the interviewer evidence of being: action-oriented, engaged with the long-term, zestful, curious and committed.

So, how do you do this?

Here are some tips:


Not passive. What’s an example from a past job where you drove the meeting, committee or project when it was languishing? Or when a deadline loomed, and you came up with a way to reach the goal? When you saw a way through the impasse or were able to streamline the process to make it happen?

Engaged with the long-term.

When was the last time you were the one to envision the broader consequences of an action? When was the last time your contribution provided a strategic view of a project or action that no one had thought of? For example, by your selecting specific software to use, the company would perhaps save $50,000 within 2 years.


Keen enjoyment or interest. Is there excitement in your voice and body language when you speak about your past work experiences? I’m not talking about nervous energy. I’m talking about the sparkle in your eyes, the animation of your movements and the tone of your voice that genuinely demonstrates your involvement and enthusiasm. This is especially critical for older job seekers. Avoid complacency in your presentation.


I love this one. It’s great to be curious about the company you’re interviewing with by asking terrific questions. But first, it’s important to show how curiosity has served you well in a previous job. For example: when was the last time you knew there had to be a better way of performing a task, closing on a particular deal or making a sale to a recalcitrant client? How did your inquiring or questioning of the situation find a better solution that resulted in a success for you and your company? Did you do research? Talk to a colleague who had done this before? Wake up with an epiphany at 3 o’clock in the morning?


Dedicated or pledged to a cause. Not self-centered. When was the last time you sacrificed your own comfort, sleep or plans for the sake of a project? Okay, I’m not talking about saying you never had a life. But you need to show what commitment means to you. When was the last time you demonstrated your unswerving devotion to getting the job done?

So that’s it.

The key to demonstrating all of these attributes is speaking in specifics. Use these 5 behaviors as a guide for preparing yourself and your list of accomplishments. You will engage the interviewer and increase your chances of being called back.

If you want help in polishing your presentation skills, whether it’s for an interview or on-the-job, call me for an exploratory conversation at 212/787-6097.

Suggested Reading

201 Best Questions to Ask on Your Interview

by John Kador

Kador tackles a subject that many job seekers need help with. His focus is on improving the quality of the questions you bring to your next interview. Here’s a real winner: What’s the most important thing I can do to help within the first 90 days of my employment? Given the increased emphasis companies are placing on the selection process (background checks, testing, etc.), having an arsenal of good questions at the ready is crucial. Kador’s book provides excellent examples of good and bad questions.